Skewness and Kurtosis：
Skewness, or skew, refers to the extent to which a distribution is not
symmetrical. The skewness of a normal distribution is equal to zero.
• A positively skewed distribution is characterized by many outliers in the
upper region, or right tail.
• A negatively skewed distribution has a disproportionately large amount of
outliers that fall within its lower (left) tail.》》》戳：免·费领取FRM各科视频讲义+历年真题+21年原版书（PDF版）
Kurtosis is a measure of the degree to which a distribution is spread out
compared to a normal distribution. Excess kurtosis = kurtosis-3.
Null hypothesis (Ho ): hypothesis the researcher wants to reject; hypothesis
that is actually tested; the basis for selection of the test statistics.
Alternative hypothesis (H A ): what is concluded if there is significant
evidence to reject the null
Risk Data Aggregation：【资料下载】点击下载FRM二级思维导图PDF版
Involves defining, gathering, and processing risk data for measuring
performance against risk tolerance/appetite. Benefits include:
• Increases ability to anticipate problems
• Identifies routes to financial health.
• Improves resolvability in event of bank stress
• Increases efficiency, reduces chance of loss, and increases